Florence Nightingale, the most famous female Victorian after Queen Victoria, is known for her commitment to nursing, especially in the Crimean War. She rebelled against convention to become a nurse at a time when nursing was seen as a lowly job, not suitable for ‘ladies’. She broke convention in another less well-known, but much more significant way too. She was a mathematician – the first woman to be elected a member of the Royal Statistical Society. She also pioneered the use of pictures to present the statistical data that she collected about causes of war deaths and issues of sanitation and health. What she did was an early version of the current Big Data revolution in computer science.
Soldiers were dying in vast numbers in the field hospital she worked in, not directly from their original wounds but from the poor conditions. But how do you persuade people of something that (at least then) is so unintuitive? Even she originally got the cause of the deaths wrong, thinking they were due to poor nutrition, rather than the hospital conditions as her statistics later showed. Politicians, the people with power to take action, were incapable of understanding statistical reports full of numbers then (and probably now). She needed a way to present the information so that the facts would jump out to anyone. Only then could she turn her numbers into life-saving action. Her solution was to use pictures, often presenting her statistics as books of pie charts and circular histograms.
Whilst she didn’t invent them, Florence Nightingale certainly was responsible for demonstrating how effective they could be in promoting change, and so subsequently popularising their use. She undoubtedly saved more lives with her statistics than from her solitary rounds at night by lamplight.
Big Data is now a big thing. It is the idea that if you collect lots of data about something (which computers now make easy) then you (and computers themselves) can look for patterns and so gain knowledge and, for people, ultimately wisdom from it. Florence Nightingale certainly did that. Data visualisation is now an important area of computer science. As computers allow us to collect and store ever more data, it becomes harder and harder for people to make any sense of it all – to pick out the important nuggets of information that matter. Raw numbers are little use if you can’t actually turn them into knowledge, or better still wisdom. Machine Learning programs can number crunch the data and make decisions from it, but its hard to know where the decisions came from. That often matters if we are to be persuaded. For humans the right kind of picture for the right kind of data can do just that as Florence Nightingale showed.
‘The Lady of the Lamp’: more than a nurse, but also a remarkable statistician and pioneer of a field of computer science…a Lady who made a difference by rebelling with a cause.
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EPSRC supports this blog through research grant EP/W033615/1.