Object-oriented pizza at the end of the universe

An eclipse halo. looking like a blank pizza with a spark of life triggering it to make itself.
Image by ipicgr from Pixabay
Image by ipicgr from Pixabay 

by Paul Curzon, Queen Mary University of London

(Based on a section from Computing Without Computers, a free book by Paul to help struggling students understand programming concepts).

Object-oriented programming is a popular kind of programming. To understand what it is all about it can help to think about cooking a meal (Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy style) where the meal cooks itself.

People talk about programs being like recipes to follow. This can help because both programs and recipes are sets of instructions. If you follow the instructions precisely in the right order, it should lead to the intended result (without you needing any thought of how to do it yourself).

That is only one way of thinking about what a program is, though. The recipe metaphor corresponds to a style of programming called procedural programming. Another completely different way of thinking about programs (a different paradigm) is object-oriented programming. So what is that about if not recipes?

In object-oriented programming, programmers think of a program, not as a series of recipes (so not sets instructions to be followed that do distinct tasks) but as a series of objects that send messages to each other to get things done. Different objects also have different behaviours – different actions they can perform. What do we mean by that? That is where The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy may help.

In the book “The Restaurant at the End of the Universe”, by Douglas Adam, part of the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy series, genetically modified animals are bred to delight in being your meal. They take great personal pride in being perfectly fattened and might suggest their leg as being particularly tasty, for example.

We can take this idea a little further. Imagine a genetically engineered future in which animals and vegetables are bred to have such intelligence (if you can call it that) and are able to cook themselves. Each duck can roast itself to death or alternatively fry itself perfectly. Now, when a request comes in for duck and mushroom pizza, messages go to the mushrooms, the ducks, etc and they get to work preparing themselves as requested by the pizza base, who on creation and addition of the toppings, promptly bakes itself in a hot oven as requested. This is roughly how an object-oriented programmer sees a program. It is just a collection of objects come to life. Each different kind of object is programmed with instructions about all the operations that it can perform on itself (its behaviours). If such an operation is required, a request goes to the object itself to do it.

Compare these genetically modified beings to a program, which could be to control a factory making food, say. In the procedural programming version we write a program (or recipe) for duck and mushroom pizza, that set out the sequence of instructions to follow. The computer, acting as a chef, works down the instructions in turn. The programmer splits the instructions into separate sets to do different tasks: for making pizza dough, adding all the toppings, and so on. Specific instructions say when the computer chef should start following new instructions and return to previous tasks to continue with old ones.

Now, following the genetically-modified food idea instead, the program is thought of as separate objects, one for the pizza base, one for the duck one for each mushroom, so the programmer has to think in terms of what objects exist and what their properties and behaviours are. She writes instructions (the program) to give each group of objects their specific behaviours (so a duck has instructions for how to roast itself, instructions for how to tear itself into pieces, for how to add its pieces on to the pizza base; a mushroom has instructions for how to wash itself, slice itself, and so on). Parts of those behaviours the programmer programs are instructions to send messages to other objects to get things done: the pizza base object, tells the mushroom objects and duck object to get their act together and prepare themselves and jump on top, for example.

This is a completely different way to think of a program based on a completely different way of decomposing it. Instead of breaking the task into subtasks of things to do, you break it into objects, separate entities that send messages to each other to get things done. Which is best depends on what the program does, but for many kinds of tasks the object-oriented approach is a much more natural way to think about the problem and so write the program.

So ducks that cook themselves may never happen in the real universe (I hope), but they could exist in the programs of future kitchens run by computers if the programmers use object-oriented programming.

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EPSRC supports this blog through research grant EP/W033615/1. 

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