CS4FN Advent – Day 10: Holly, Ivy and Alexa – chatbots and the useful skill of file management. Plus win at noughts and crosses

Chatbots, knowing where your files are, and winning at noughts and crosses with artificial intelligence.

Welcome to Day 10 of our CS4FN Christmas Computing Advent Calendar. We are just under halfway through our 25 days of posts, one every day between now and Christmas. You can see all our previous posts in the list at the end.

Today’s picture-theme is Holly (and ivy). Let’s see how I manage to link that to computer science 🙂

Some holly with red berries

1. Holly – or Alexa or Siri

In the comedy TV series* Red Dwarf the spaceship has ‘Holly’ an intelligent computer who talks to the crew and answers their questions. Star Trek also has ‘Computer’ who can have quite technical conversations and give reports on the health of the ship and crew.

People are now quite familiar with talking to computers, or at least giving them commands. You might have heard of Alexa (Amazon) or Siri (Apple / iPhone) and you might even have talked to one of these virtual assistants yourself.

When this article (below) was written people were much less familiar with them. How can they know all the answers to people’s questions and why do they seem to have an intelligence?

Read the article and then play a game (see 3. Today’s Puzzle) to see if you think a piece of paper can be intelligent.

Meet the Chatterbots – talking to computers thanks to artificial intelligence and virtual assistants

 

*also a book!

 

2. Are you a filing cabinet or a laundry basket?

People have different ways of saving information on their computers. Some university teachers found that when they asked their students to open a file from a particular directory their students were completely puzzled. It turned out that the (younger) students didn’t think about files and where to put them in the same way that their (older) teachers did, and the reason is partly the type of device teachers and students grew up with.

Older people grew up using computers where the best way to organise things was to save a file in a particular folder to make it easy to find it again. Sometimes there would be several folders. For example you might have a main folder for Homework, then a year folder for 2021, then folders inside for each month. In the December folder you’d put your december.doc file. The file has a file name (december.doc) and an ‘address’ (Homework/2021/December/). Pretty similar to the link to this blog post which also uses the / symbol to separate all the posts made in 2021, then December, then today.

Files and folders image by Ulrike Mai from Pixabay. Each brown folder contains files, and is itself contained in the drawer, and the drawer is contained in the cabinet.

To find your december.doc file again you’d just open each folder by following that path: first Homework, then 2021, then December – and there’s your file. It’s a bit like looking for a pair of socks in your house – first you need to open your front door and go into your home, then open your bedroom door, then open the sock drawer and there are your socks.

What your file and folder structure might look like.

Younger people have grown up with devices that make it easy to search for any file. It doesn’t really matter where the file is so people used to these devices have never really needed to think about a file’s location. People can search for the file by name, by some words that are in the file, or the date range for when it was created, even the type of file. So many options.

The first way, that the teachers were using, is like a filing cabinet in an office, with documents neatly packed away in folders within folders. The second way is a bit more like a laundry basket where your socks might be all over the house but you can easily find the pair you want by typing ‘blue socks’ into the search bar.

Which way do you use?

In most cases either is fine and you can just choose whichever way of searching or finding their files that works for you. If you’re learning programming though it can be really helpful to know a bit about file paths because the code you’re creating might need to know exactly where a file is, so that it can read from it. So now some university teachers on STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths) and computing courses are also teaching their students how to use the filing cabinet method. It could be useful for them in their future careers.

Want to find out more about files / file names / file paths and directory structures? Have a look at this great little tutorial https://superbasics.beholder.uk/file-system/

As the author says “Many consumer devices try to conceal the underlying file system from the user (for example, smart phones and some tablet computers). Graphical interfaces, applications, and even search have all made it possible for people to use these devices without being concerned with file systems. When you study Computer Science, you must look behind these interfaces.

You might be wondering what any of this has to do with ivy. Well, whenever I’ve seen a real folder structure on a Windows computer (you can see one here) I’ve often thought it looked a bit like ivy 😉

Creeping ivy at Blackheath station in London.

Further reading

File not found: A generation that grew up with Google is forcing professors to rethink their lesson plans (22 September 2021) The Verge

 

 

3. Today’s puzzle

Print or write out the instructions on page 5 of the PDF and challenge someone to a game of noughts and crosses… (there’s a good chance the bit of paper will win).

The Intelligent Piece of Paper activity.

 

4. Yesterday’s puzzle

The trick is based on a very old puzzle at least one early version of which was by Sam Lloyd. See this selection of vanishing puzzles for some variations. A very simple version of it appears in the Moscow Puzzles (puzzle 305) by Boris A. Kordemsky where a line is made to disappear.

In the picture above five medium-length lines become four longer lines. It looks like a line has disappeared but its length has just been spread among the other lines, lengthening them.

If you’d like to have a go at drawing your own disappearing puzzle have a look here.

 

5. Previous Advent Calendar posts

CS4FN Advent – Day 1 – Woolly jumpers, knitting and coding (1 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 2 – Pairs: mittens, gloves, pair programming, magic tricks (2 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 3 – woolly hat: warming versus cooling (3 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 4 – Ice skate: detecting neutrinos at the South Pole, figure-skating motion capture, Frozen and a puzzle (4 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 5 – snowman: analog hydraulic computers (aka water computers), digital compression, and a puzzle (5 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 6 – patterned bauble: tracing patterns in computing – printed circuit boards, spotting links and a puzzle for tourists (6 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 7 – Computing for the birds: dawn chorus, birds as data carriers and a Google April Fool (plus a puzzle!) (7 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 8: gifts, and wrapping – Tim Berners-Lee, black boxes and another computing puzzle (8 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 9: gingerbread man – computing and ‘food’ (cookies, spam!), and a puzzle (9 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 10: Holly, Ivy and Alexa – chatbots and the useful skill of file management. Plus win at noughts and crosses – (10 December 2021) – this post

 

 

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 9: gingerbread man – computing and ‘food’ (cookies, spam!), and a puzzle

Computing- and food-themed post on cookies and spam + a puzzle.

Welcome to Day 9 of our CS4FN Christmas Computing Advent Calendar. Every day between now and Christmas we’ll publish a post about computer science with a puzzle to print and solve. You can see all our previous posts in the list at the end.

Today’s post is inspired by the picture on the advent calendar’s door – a gingerbread man, so we have a food-themed post. Well… food-ish.

Festive gingerbread man, wearing a mask. Safety first!

1. Cookies, but not the biscuit kind

Imagine you have a Christmas gift voucher and want to spend it in an online shop. You visit the website and see an item you’d like so you click ‘add to basket’ and then look for some other things you’d like to buy. You click on another item to find out more about it but suddenly your basket is empty! Fortunately this doesn’t usually happen thanks to cookies, which are tiny computer files that can make your website visit run smoothly.

Websites ask you if they can put these cookies on your computer. If you say ‘yes’ that lets them see that you are the same person as you add new things to your basket. It would be no use if you added your second item and the website decided that you were now a completely different person. Some cookies help the organisation know that you’re still you, even when you’re viewing lots of different pages on their website.

Cookie image by congerdesign from Pixabay

Other cookies mean that you don’t have to keep logging in every time you click on a new page within the website. It would be very annoying if you had to do that.

Some cookies are there to help the organisation itself. They let them see what people are clicking on when they’re on the organisation’s website, and what path they follow as they visit different pages. They can also tell what device someone is using (a phone or a computer) so they can make sure the information is set to be the right size on their screen.

If people are logged in then the website knows who they are. Because of this, organisations have to be very careful about how they use this information, to protect their visitors’ privacy. If they don’t take care then they are breaking the law and can be fined a lot of money.

Further reading

Cookies (no publication date given) – from the ICO – the Information Commissioner’s Office.

 

 

2. The recipe for spam

These days when people talk about “spam” they are talking about unwanted emails from strangers. The word spam comes from a tinned meat product which, because of a comedy sketch by Monty Python, now also means “email messages that no-one can avoid”.

by Paul Curzon, QMUL. This post was originally published on the CS4FN website.

Fighting spam

Monitor screen showing spam in the mailbox

Shutting down spammers is tough for the authorities, so the internet’s arteries go on getting plugged up by spam. The best strategy against it so far seems to be filtering out junk emails from your inbox. Lots of early spam filtering relied on keeping lists of words that appear in spam and catching emails that contained them, but there were plenty of problems. For one thing, certain words that turn up in spam also appear sometimes in normal emails, so perfectly innocent messages sometimes ended up in the spam filter. What’s more, spammers have ways of eluding filters that simply check words against a list. Just me55 a-r-0-u-n-d w1th teh sp£lling.

Finally a simple but ingenious idea surfaced: instead of trying to keep a list of spammy words, why not try and teach computers to recognise spam for themselves? There’s a whole branch of maths about probability that researchers began to apply to spam, and a programmer called Paul Graham made the strategy famous in 2002 when he wrote an essay called A Plan for Spam.

Spammy maths

Paul Graham suggested that you could analyse the words you get in a sample of your email to see what the chances are that a particular word would appear in your real messages. You could do the same with a sample from your spam. Then you could look up any word in a new message and see whether it’s likely to be spam or your real email.

Of course, one word’s not enough to base your conclusion on, so Paul’s filter chose the fifteen most interesting words to look at. What that meant was that it grabbed the biggest clues to look at – words that, statistically, had the best chance of being in either spam or real mail, but not both. Then it used those clues to figure out the overall chance that an email is spam. It did this with an equation called Bayes’ theorem, which tells you how to figure out the chances of something being true given a set of facts. In this case Bayes’ theorem figures out the chances of a message being spam given the set of words in it.

What’s brilliant about the statistical approach is that not only does the computer learn as it goes on, meaning it keeps up with spammers’ tricks automatically, it can learn what words are normal for each person’s email, so scientists working on Viagra wouldn’t have to worry about all their emails going in the bin.

On guard online

Spam filters now work well enough that you can make your inbox pretty safe from the porky hordes of messages trying to invade. Wonderful news for the 99% of us who don’t have any use for dodgy meds, fake fashions and pyramid scams. As long as people keep buying into spam and the small group of overlords keeps turning computers into zombies, we’ll need to keep our defences up.

 

3. Today’s puzzle – the melting snowman

A picture showing several snowmen, drawn by Paul Curzon.

Instructions

One of the snowmen keeps disappearing! Is it melting or just flying
away, and which one is it?

Cut out the picture along the straight black lines, to give three
rectangular pieces. Then follow the simple algorithm and see the
snowman disappear before your eyes.

1. Put the three pieces together in the original positions to make the picture.
2. Count all the snowmen.
3. Swap the position of the top two pieces over so the top and bottom halves of the snowmen line up again
4. Count the snowmen again.

One snowman has disappeared!

Put the pieces back and you will find it reappears.

The explanation and answer will arrive in tomorrow’s (blog) post 🙂

 

4. Answer to yesterday’s puzzle

Here’s the answer to Daniel’s puzzle.

 

5. Previous Advent Calendar posts

CS4FN Advent – Day 1 – Woolly jumpers, knitting and coding (1 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 2 – Pairs: mittens, gloves, pair programming, magic tricks (2 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 3 – woolly hat: warming versus cooling (3 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 4 – Ice skate: detecting neutrinos at the South Pole, figure-skating motion capture, Frozen and a puzzle (4 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 5 – snowman: analog hydraulic computers (aka water computers), digital compression, and a puzzle (5 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 6 – patterned bauble: tracing patterns in computing – printed circuit boards, spotting links and a puzzle for tourists (6 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 7 – Computing for the birds: dawn chorus, birds as data carriers and a Google April Fool (plus a puzzle!) (7 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 8: gifts, and wrapping – Tim Berners-Lee, black boxes and another computing puzzle (8 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 9: gingerbread man – computing and ‘food’ (cookies, spam!), and a puzzle (9 December 2021) – this post

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 8: gifts, and wrapping – Tim Berners-Lee, Right to Repair & another computing puzzle

Tim Berners-Lee, Right to Repair, and a maths puzzle.

Welcome to Day 8 of our CS4FN Christmas Computing Advent Calendar. It features a computing-themed post every day in December until Christmas Day. All the blog posts in the Advent Calendar so far have been inspired by the picture on the ‘door’ – and today’s post is also inspired by the picture, which is of a Christmas present.

Presents are something you give freely to someone, but they’re also something you hide behind wrapping paper. This post is about a gift and also about trying to uncover something that’s been hidden. Read on to find out about Tim Berners-Lee’s gift to the world, and about the Restart Project who are working to stop the manufacturers of electronic devices from hiding how people can fix them. At the bottom of the post you’ll find the answer to yesterday’s puzzle and a new puzzle for today, also all of the previous posts in this series. If you’re enjoying the posts, please share them with your friends 🙂

A present in blue wrapping paper with a large green bow.

 

1. “This is for everyone” – Tim Berner’s Lee

Audiences don’t usually cheer for computer scientists at major sporting events but there’s one computer scientist who was given a special welcome at the London Olympics Opening Ceremony in 2012.

Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989 by coming up with the way for web pages to be connected through links (everything that’s blue and clickable on this page is a link). That led to the creation of web browsers which let us read web pages and find our way around them by clicking on those links. If you’ve ever wondered what “www” means at the start of a link it’s just short for World Wide Web. Try saying “www” and then “World Wide Web” – which takes longer to say?

Tim Berners-Lee didn’t make lots of money from his invention. Instead he made the World Wide Web freely available for everyone to use so that they could access the information on the web. Unless someone has printed this onto paper, you’re reading this on a web browser on the World Wide Web, so three cheers Tim Berners-Lee.

In 2004 the Queen knighted him (he’s now Sir Tim Berners-Lee) and in 2017 he was given a special award, named after Alan Turing, for “inventing the World Wide Web and the first web browser.”

Below is the tweet he sent out during the Olympics opening ceremony.

 

 

Further reading

The Man Who Invented The Web (24 June 2001) Time
“I Was Devastated”: Tim Berners-Lee, the Man Who Created the World Wide Web, Has Some Regrets (1 July 2018) Vanity Fair

 

2. Do you have the right to repair your electronic devices?

A ‘black box’ is a phrase to describe something that has an input and an output but where ‘the bit in the middle’ is a complete mystery and hidden from view. An awful lot of modern devices are like this. In the past you might have been able to mend something technological (even if it was just changing the battery) but for devices like mobile phones it’s becoming almost impossible.

People need special tools just to open them as well as the skills to know how to open them without breaking some incredibly important tiny bit. Manufacturers aren’t always very keen for customers to fix things. The manufacturers can make more money from us if they have to sell us expensive parts and charge us for people to fix them. Some even put software in their devices that stops people from fixing them!

The cost of fixing devices can be very expensive and in some cases it can actually be cheaper to just buy a new device. Obviously it’s very wasteful too.

The Restart Project is full of volunteers who want to help everyone fix our electronic devices, and also fix our relationship with electronics (discouraging us from throwing away our old phone when a new one is on the market). The project began in London but they now run Repair Parties in several cities in the UK and around the world. At these parties people can bring their broken devices and rather than just ‘getting them fixed’ they can learn how to fix their devices themselves by learning and sharing new skills. This means they save money and save their devices from landfill.

Restart also campaign for people to have the Right to Repair their own devices. They want a change in manufacturing laws to make sure that devices are designed so that the people who buy and use them can easily repair them without having to spend too much money.

 

3. Today’s puzzle

A more mathematical puzzle today. Rather than writing letters into the kriss-kross you need to write the equation and its answer.

For example 5 + 2 = as the clue gives you 5 + 2 = 7 as the answer which takes up 5 characters (note that the answer is not “seven” which also takes up 5 characters!). There are several places in the puzzle where a 5 character answer could go, but which one is the right one? Start with the clues that have only one space they can fit into (the ones with 7 symbols and 9 symbols) then see what can fit around them.

This puzzle was created by Daniel, aged 6. For an explanation of the links to computer science and how these puzzles can be used in the classroom please see the Maths Kriss-Kross page on our site for teachers. Note that the page does include the answer sheet, but no cheating, we’ll post the answer tomorrow. Also, if you don’t have a printer you can use the editable PDF linked on that page.

4. Answer to yesterday’s puzzle

 

The creation of this post was funded by UKRI, through grant EP/K040251/2 held by Professor Ursula Martin, and forms part of a broader project on the development and impact of computing.

 

5. Previous Advent Calendar posts

CS4FN Advent – Day 1 – Woolly jumpers, knitting and coding (1 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 2 – Pairs: mittens, gloves, pair programming, magic tricks (2 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 3 – woolly hat: warming versus cooling (3 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 4 – Ice skate: detecting neutrinos at the South Pole, figure-skating motion capture, Frozen and a puzzle (4 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 5 – snowman: analog hydraulic computers (aka water computers), digital compression, and a puzzle (5 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 6 – patterned bauble: tracing patterns in computing – printed circuit boards, spotting links and a puzzle for tourists (6 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 7 – Computing for the birds: dawn chorus, birds as data carriers and a Google April Fool (plus a puzzle!) (7 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 8: gifts, and wrapping – Tim Berners-Lee, black boxes and another computing puzzle (8 December 2021) – this post

 

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 7 – Computing for the birds: dawn chorus, birds as data carriers and a Google April Fool (plus a puzzle!)

Welcome to Day 7 of our advent calendar. Yesterday’s post was about Printed Circuit Birds Boards, today’s theme is the Christmas robin redbreast which features on lots of Christmas cards and today is making a special appearance on our CS4FN Computing advent calendar.

A little robin redbreast.

In this longer post we’ll focus on the ways computer scientists are learning about our feathered friends and we’ll also make room for some of the bird-brained April Fools jokes in computing too.

We hope you enjoy it, and there’s also a puzzle at the end.

 

1. Computing Sounds Wild – bird is the word

Our free CS4FN magazine, Computing Sounds Wild (you can download a copy here), features the word ”bird” 60 times so it’s definitely very bird-themed.

An interest in nature and an interest in computers don’t obviously go well together. For a band of computer scientists interested in sound they very much do, though. In this issue we explore the work of scientists and engineers using computers to understand, identify and recreate wild sounds, especially those of birds. We see how sophisticated algorithms that allow machines to learn, can help recognize birds even when they can’t be seen, so helping conservation efforts. We see how computer models help biologists understand animal behaviour, and we look at how electronic and computer-generated sounds, having changed music, are now set to change the soundscapes of films. Making electronic sounds is also a great, fun way to become a computer scientist and learn to program.”

 

2. Singing bird – a human choir singing birdsong

by Jane Waite, QMUL
This article was originally published on the CS4FN website and can also be found on page 15 in the magazine linked above.

“I’m in a choir”. “Really, what do you sing?” “I did a blackbird last week, but I think I’m going to be woodpecker today, I do like a robin though!”

This is no joke! Marcus Coates a British artist, got up very early, and working with a wildlife sound recordist, Geoff Sample, he used 14 microphones to record the dawn chorus over lots of chilly mornings. They slowed the sounds down and matched up each species of bird with different types of human voices. Next they created a film of 19 people making bird song, each person sang a different bird, in their own habitats, a car, a shed even a lady in the bath! The 19 tracks are played together to make the dawn chorus. See it on YouTube below.

Marcus didn’t stop there, he wrote a new bird song score. Yes, for people to sing a new top ten bird hit, but they have to do it very slowly. People sing ‘bird’ about 20 times slower than birds sing ‘bird’ ‘whooooooop’, ‘whooooooop’, ‘tweeeeet’. For a special performance, a choir learned the new song, a new dawn chorus, they sang the slowed down version live, which was recorded, speeded back up and played to the audience, I was there! It was amazing! A human performance, became a minute of tweeting joy. Close your eyes and ‘whoop’ you were in the woods, at the crack of dawn!

Computationally thinking a performance

Computational thinking is at the heart of the way computer scientists solve problems. Marcus Coates, doesn’t claim to be a computer scientist, he is an artist who looks for ways to see how people are like other animals. But we can get an idea of what computational thinking is all about by looking at how he created his sounds. Firstly, he and wildlife sound recordist, Geoff Sample, had to focus on the individual bird sounds in the original recordings, ignore detail they didn’t need, doing abstraction, listening for each bird, working out what aspects of bird sound was important. They looked for patterns isolating each voice, sometimes the bird’s performance was messy and they could not hear particular species clearly, so they were constantly checking for quality. For each bird, they listened and listened until they found just the right ‘slow it down’ speed. Different birds needed different speeds for people to be able to mimic and different kinds of human voices suited each bird type: attention to detail mattered enormously. They had to check the results carefully, evaluating, making sure each really did sound like the appropriate bird and all fitted together into the Dawn Chorus soundscape. They also had to create a bird language, another abstraction, a score as track notes, and that is just an algorithm for making sounds!

 

3. Sophisticated songbird singing – how do they do it?

by Dan Stowell, QMUL
This article was originally published on the CS4FN website and can also be found on page 14 in the magazine linked above.

How do songbirds make such complex sounds? The answer is on a different branch of the tree of evolution…
We humans have a set of vocal folds (or vocal cords) in our throats, and they vibrate when we speak to make the pitched sound. Air from your lungs passes over them and they chop up the column of air letting more or less through and so making sound waves. This vocal ‘equipment’ is similar in mammals like monkeys and dogs, our evolutionary neighbours. But songbirds are not so similar to us. They make sounds too, but they evolved this skill separately, and so their ‘equipment’ is different: they actually have two sets of vocal folds, one for each lung.

Image by Dieter_G from Pixabay

Sometimes if you hear an impressive, complex sound from a bird, it’s because the bird is actually using the two sides of their voice-box together to make what seems like a single extra-long or extra-fancy sound. Songbirds also have very strong muscles in their throat that help them change the sound extremely quickly. Biologists believe that these skills evolved so that the birds could tell potential mates and rivals how healthy and skillful they were.

So if you ever wondered why you can’t quite sing like a blackbird, now you have a good excuse!

 

4. Data transmitted on the wing

Computers are great ways of moving data from one place to another and the internet can let you download or share a file very quickly. Before I had the internet at home if I wanted to work on a file on my home computer I had to save a copy from my work computer onto a memory stick and plug it in to my laptop at home. Once I ‘got connected’ at home I was then able to email myself with an attachment and use my home broadband to pick up file. Now I don’t even need to do that. I can save a file on my work computer, it synchronises with the ‘cloud’ and when I get home I can pick up where I left off. When I was using the memory stick my rate of data transfer was entirely down to the speed of road traffic as I sat on the bus on the way to work. Fairly slow, but the data definitely arrived in one piece.

In 1990 a joke memo was published for April Fool’s Day which suggested the use of homing pigeons as a form of internet, in which the birds might carry small packets of data. The memo, called ‘IP over Avian Carriers’ (that is, a bird-based internet), was written in a mock-serious tone (you can read it here) but although it was written for fun the idea has actually been used in real life too. Photographers in remote areas with minimal internet signal have used homing pigeons to send their pictures back.

The beautiful (and quite possibly wi-fi ready, with those antennas) Victoria Crowned Pigeon. Not a carrier pigeon admittedly, but much more photogenic.  Image by Foto-Rabe from Pixabay

A company in the US which offers adventure holidays including rafting used homing pigeons to return rolls of films (before digital film took over) back to the company’s base. The guides and their guests would take loads of photos while having fun rafting on the river and the birds would speed the photos back to the base, where they could be developed, so that when the adventurous guests arrived later their photos were ready for them.

Further reading

Pigeons keep quirky Poudre River rafting tradition afloat (17 July 2017) Coloradoan.

 

5. Serious fun with pigeons

On April Fool’s Day in 2002 Google ‘admitted’ to its users that the reason their web search results appeared so quickly and were so accurate was because, rather than using automated processes to grab the best result, Google was actually using a bank of pigeons to select the best results. Millions of pigeons viewing web pages and pecking picking the best one for you when you type in your search question. Pretty unlikely, right?

In a rather surprising non-April Fool twist some researchers decided to test out how well pigeons can distinguish different types of information in hospital photographs. They trained pigeons by getting them to view medical pictures of tissue samples taken from healthy people as well as pictures taken from people who were ill. The pigeons had to peck one of two coloured buttons and in doing so learned which pictures were of healthy tissue and which were diseased. If they pecked the correct button they got an extra food reward.

Pigeon, possibly pondering people’s photographs. Image by Davgood Kirshot from Pixabay

The researchers then tested the pigeons with a fresh set of pictures, to see if they could apply their learning to pictures they’d not seen before. Incredibly the pigeons were pretty good at separating the pictures into healthy and unhealthy, with an 80 per cent hit rate.

Further reading

Principle behind Google’s April Fools’ pigeon prank proves more than a joke (27 March 2019) The Conversation.

 

6. Today’s puzzle

You can download this as a PDF to PRINT or as an editable PDF that you can fill in on a COMPUTER.

You might wonder “What do these kriss-kross puzzles have to do with computing?” Well, you need to use a bit of logical thinking to fill one in and come up with a strategy. If there’s only one word of a particular length then it has to go in that space and can’t fit anywhere else. You’re then using pattern matching to decide which other words can fit in the spaces around it and which match the letters where they overlap. Younger children might just enjoy counting the letters and writing them out, or practising phonics or spelling.

We’ll post the answer tomorrow.

7. Answer to yesterday’s puzzle

 

The creation of this post was funded by UKRI, through grant EP/K040251/2 held by Professor Ursula Martin, and forms part of a broader project on the development and impact of computing.

 

Previous Advent Calendar posts

CS4FN Advent – Day 1 – Woolly jumpers, knitting and coding (1 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 2 – Pairs: mittens, gloves, pair programming, magic tricks (2 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 3 – woolly hat: warming versus cooling (3 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 4 – Ice skate: detecting neutrinos at the South Pole, figure-skating motion capture, Frozen and a puzzle (4 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 5 – snowman: analog hydraulic computers (aka water computers), digital compression, and a puzzle (5 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 6 – patterned bauble: tracing patterns in computing – printed circuit boards, spotting links and a puzzle for tourists (6 December 2021)

 

CS4FN Advent – Day 7 – Computing for the birds: dawn chorus, birds as data carriers and a Google April Fool (plus a puzzle!) (7 December 2021) – this post