# CS4FN Advent – Day 5 – snowman: analog hydraulic computers (aka water computers), digital compression, and a puzzle

This post is behind the 5th ‘door’ of the CS4FN Christmas Computing Advent Calendar – we’re publishing a computing-themed (and sometimes festive-themed) post every day until Christmas Day. Today’s picture is a snowman, and what’s a snowman made of but frozen water?

## You can make a computer out of water!

1n 1936 Vladimir Lukyanov got creative with some pipes and pumps built a computer, called a water (or hydraulic) integrator, which could store water temporarily in some bits and pump water to other bits. The movement of water and where it ended up used the ‘simplicity of programming’ to show him the answer – a physical representation of some Very Hard Sums (sums, equations and calculations that are easier now thanks to much faster computers).

A simple and effective way of using water to show a mathematical relationship popped up on QI and the video below demonstrates Pythagoras’ Theorem rather nicely.

In 1939 Lukyanov published an article about his analog hydraulic computer for the (‘Otdeleniye Technicheskikh Nauk’ or ‘Отделение технических наук’ in Russian which means Section for Technical Scientific Works although these days we’d probably say Department of Engineering Sciences) and in 1955 this was translated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for the US army’s “Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Laboratory”. You can see a copy of his translated ‘Hydraulic Apparatus for Engineering Computations‘ at the Internet Archive.

In a rather pleasing coincidence for this blog post (that you might think was by design rather than just good fortune) this device was actually put to work by the US Army to study the freezing and thawing not of snowmen but of soil (ie, the ground). It’s particularly useful if you’re building and maintaining a military airfield (or even just roads) to know how well the concrete runway will survive changes in weather (and how well your aircraft’s wheels will survive after meeting it).

For a modern take on the ‘hydrodynamic calculating machine’ aka water computer see this video from science communicator Steve Mould in which he creates a computer that can do some simple additions.

## The puzzle of digital compression

Our snowman’s been sitting around for a while and his ice has probably become a bit compacted, so he might be taking up less space (or he might have melted). Compression is a technique computer scientists use to make big data files smaller.

Big files take a long time to transfer from one place to another. The more data the longer it takes, and the more memory is needed to store the information. Compressing the files saves space. Data on computers is stored as long sequences of characters – ultimately as binary 1s and 0s. The idea with compression is that we use an algorithm to change the way the information is represented so that fewer characters are needed to store exactly the same information.

That involves using special codes. Each common word or phrase is replaced by a shorter sequence of symbols. A long file can be made much shorter if it has lots of similar sequences, just as the message below has been shortened. A second algorithm can then be used to get the original back. We’ve turned the idea into a puzzle that involves pattern matching patterns from the code book. Can you work out what the original message was? (Answer tomorrow).

The code: NG1 AMH5 IBEC2 84F6JKO 7JDLC93 (clue: Spooky apparitions are about to appear on Christmas Eve)

The code book (match the letter or number to the word it codes for).